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8 References 1. Langley P. The prevalence, correlates and treat- ment of pain in the European Union. Curr Med Res Opin, 2011 27: 463-480 2. Langley P., Müller-Schwefe G., Nicolaou A., et al. The societal impact of pain in the European Union: health-related quality of life and health- care resource utilization. J Med Econ, 2010, 13: 571–581 3. Langley P., Müller-Schwefe G., Nicolaou A., et al. The impact of pain on labour force participation, absenteeism and presenteeism in the European Union. J Med Econ, 2010 13: 662–672 ting pain. These increases are far greater than those associated with socio-demographic factors, health risk factors (in particular body mass index),or the presence of comorbi- dities2 . With regard to labour force status, people with severe pain were only about half as likely to be in full time employment compared to those who had no pain. This corresponds to a labour force participation deficit of around 4.3 million in the 5 Euro- pean countries surveyed. Not only does this represent a major impact on output loss, but also a potential claim on social security budgets. The experience of pain, particu- larly severe and frequent pain, was also found to outstrip the impact of other health status factors in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism, confirming not only that the socie- tal burden of pain is substantial but that it imposes potentially substan- tial costs on employers3 . NHWS 2010 The NHWS 2010 patient sample number of 57,805 represented an increase in participants from Italy and Spain. Subjects were asked to report pain experience in the last month and severity and fre- quency of pain. In this survey, two additional pain questions using 10-point pain scales to quantify current pain and pain experienced in the last 7 days were included. Provisional analysis of the results of the NHWS 2010 in general indi- cate little difference from the 2008 survey in terms of the prevalence, severity and frequency of pain. The consistent nature of the survey was further indicated by the almost identical scores of the HRQoL in 2008 and 2010. Conclusions Overall the experience of pain re- ported in the 2008 and 2010 NHWS points to robustness and consi- stency of the results achieved. The overall burden of pain is demonstra- ted in terms of its deficit impact on health related quality of life, health status, employment, workforce activities and healthcare resource utilization, affecting individuals, em- ployers and society as a whole. USE OF HEALTHCARE RESOURCES 11.8 4.4 Mean number of visits to HCPs during the past 6 months Avaragenumberofvisits all (no pain population) with severe pain 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.59 0.14 Hospitalized during past 6 months Avaragenumberofhospitalisation all (no pain population) with severe pain 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0 Adapted from Langley P. CMRO 2011